By Thomas M. Schmitt
Within the culture of the preferred first version, research of Surfactants, moment variation bargains a accomplished and sensible account of research tools for opting for and knowing commercially vital surfactants-individually and in compounds. Combining an entire evaluate of the literature with various overview systems and the necessities for advertisement items, this beneficial reference explores the most important levels and most recent advancements for surfactant purposes. This version has been completely extended and contours new sections on capillary electrophoresis, ether carboxylates, and ester quats. it's also extra globally obtainable with overseas language citations and SI units.Containing over 2400 references, drawings, tables, and equations, research of Surfactants, moment version is an advised reference for actual, floor, colloid, and oil chemists; analytical, learn, and caliber insurance chemists operating within the cleaning soap and detergent, prescribed drugs, and beauty industries; regulatory and nutrition scientists; and upper-level undergraduate and graduate scholars in those disciplines.
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Extra info for Analysis of Surfactants (Surfactant Science Series)
Chapter 1 Distillation Water, especially at high levels, is often still determined by azeotropic distillation (6,32,33). However, with the development of Karl Fischer reagents that are not susceptible to interference, this technique is fading from use and is not described here. I. Apparent pH Anionic surfactants are normally adjusted to neutral pH after sulfonation. A low product pH shows that hydrolysis may have occurred, while high pH may indicate improper neutralization. pH is usually measured on an aqueous solution of sample concentration 1% or less (34,35).
Characterization of Anionic Surfactants 33 On occasion, it may be necessary to determine the position of the double bond in an alkenesulfonate. This can be accomplished by oxidation with permanganate/periodate reagent to cleave the compound into two carboxylic acids (86,87) which are determined by gas or liquid chromatography. For an alkenesulfonate of a single chain length, NMR spectroscopy is suitable for determining the position of the double bond. 4. Sultones Sultones can be hydrolyzed to the corresponding sulfonates, which are easily determined by titration or spectrophotomety.
The eluate contains the nonionic material, which may be determined gravimetrically. This procedure is quantitative for oil in alkyl sulfates and alkylether sulfates, but gives low recovery with LAS and almost no recovery when applied to paraffin sulfonates and oc-olefin sulfonates (10). E. Inorganic Salts Impurities in anionic surfactants include sulfate salts from the sulfonation reaction and perhaps residual catalyst from previous steps, such as the KOH catalyst that may have been used to prepare the ethoxylated alcohol which was subsequently sulfated.