By Alexander, Mark Mindess, Sidney
Bringing jointly in a single quantity the newest examine and data, this ebook presents a detailed advisor to the choice and use of aggregates in concrete. After an advent defining the aim and function of aggregates in concrete, the authors current an outline of mixture resources and creation recommendations, through a close learn in their actual, mechanical and chemical houses. this data is then utilized to using aggregates in either plastic and hardened concretes, and within the total combine layout. specified aggregates and their purposes are mentioned intimately, as are the present major necessities, criteria and assessments.
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Extra resources for Aggregates in Concrete (Modern concrete technology series 13)
Gypsum: Hydrous calcium sulphate, CaSO4 ·2H2 O, or anhydrite, CaSO4 . Typically forms a whitish coating on sand and gravel, and is slightly soluble in water. g. sodium and magnesium, can also be present. All sulphates can attack concrete and mortar. Pyrite, marcasite, and pyrrhotite: Frequently found in natural aggregates. They may oxidize to sulphuric acid, and form iron oxides and hydroxides, which can attack or stain the concrete. 15. Magnetite: Black-coloured common mineral, Fe3 O4 Haematite: Red-coloured common mineral, Fe2 O3 Ilmenite: Black, weakly magnetic, less common mineral, FeTiO3 Limonite: Brown weathering product of iron-bearing mineral.
01 per cent prescribed limit. Dredged sources Dredging is an increasingly popular method of extracting aggregates. The majority of dredging is from marine sources which have become more exploited in recent decades due to stricter environmental controls on land-based deposits (see Chapter 1). For instance, in the UK where the government has encouraged use of marine sources (subject to very strict controls) about 15 per cent of aggregates nationally derive from this source, although the proportion in southeast England, which produces the largest volume of concrete, is closer to 50 per cent.
G. g. g. forsterite. Found only in dark igneous rocks without quartz. g. biotite, phlogopite. Easily cleave into thin flakes and plates. See also below. These have perfect cleavage in one plane, splitting into thin flakes. Micas are common in all rock types, and occur as minor or trace constituents in many sands and gravels. Muscovites: Colourless to light green Biotites: Dark coloured to black Lepidolites: Light coloured to white Chlorites: Dark green coloured Vermiculites: Formed by alteration of other micas, brown coloured.