Aeronomy by P. M. Banks and G. Kockarts (Auth.)

By P. M. Banks and G. Kockarts (Auth.)

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Seiler, and P. Warneck, / . Geophys. Res. 76, 2866 (1971). 47. A. O. Nier, Science 121, 737 (1955). 48. W. R. Schell, G. Sauzay, and B. R. Payne, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 2251 (1970). 49. F. Bergman, in Earth Science and Meteoritics (J. Geiss and E. D. ), p. 169. , Amsterdam, 1963. 50. H. E. Suess, Ann. Rev. Nucl. Sei. 8, 243 (1958). 51. W. F. Libby, Res. Geochem. 151, 33 (1959). 52. W. B. Clarke, M. A. Beg, and H. Craig, Earth Planet. Sei. Lett. 6, 213 (1969). 53. H. Craig, / . Geol. 62, 115 (1954).

Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 87, 125 (1961). W. Nordberg, in Meteorological Observations above 30 Kilometers, pp. 37-57. C. (1964). 11. CIRA 1965. , Amsterdam, 1965. 12. S. Teweles, in Meteorological Observations above 30 Kilometers, pp. 15-35. C. (1964). 13. B. J. Conrath, R. A. Hanel, V. G. Kunde, and C. Prabhakara, /. Geophys. Res. 75, 5831 (1970). 1 Introduction The transition from the homosphere to the heterosphere involves a competition between mixing and diffusive processes. The former tends to keep the mean molecular mass constant with altitude, while the latter acts to let each gas constituent assume a density and pressure distribution consistent with its own mass and temperature.

As discussed in Chapter 15, partial pressure gradients of minor constituents tend to establish diffusive flows within the atmosphere. The properties of such flows are determined by the equations of continuity and momentum conservation. An important characteristic of minor constituent flow is the existence of a maximum value of the diffusive flux which is reached when the scale height of the minor constituent is the same as the scale height of the atmosphere. The magnitude of the limiting flux depends both upon atomic quantities and the parameters of the atmosphere.

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