By Konstantin Chakhlevitch, Peter Cowling (auth.), Carlos Cotta, Marc Sevaux, Kenneth Sörensen (eds.)
One of the keystones in sensible metaheuristic problem-solving is the truth that tuning the optimization strategy to the matter into consideration is essential for reaching best functionality. This tuning/customization is mostly within the arms of the set of rules dressmaker, and regardless of a few methodological makes an attempt, it principally continues to be a systematic artwork. shifting part of this customization attempt to the set of rules itself -endowing it with clever mechanisms to self-adapt to the matter- has been a protracted pursued target within the box of metaheuristics.
These mechanisms can contain varied points of the set of rules, corresponding to for instance, self-adjusting the parameters, self-adapting the functioning of inner elements, evolving seek options, etc.
Recently, the assumption of hyperheuristics, i.e., utilizing a metaheuristic layer for adapting the hunt by means of selectively utilizing assorted low-level heuristics, has additionally been becoming more popular. This quantity provides fresh advances within the sector of adaptativeness in metaheuristic optimization, together with up to date reports of hyperheuristics and self-adaptation in evolutionary algorithms, in addition to innovative works on adaptive, self-adaptive and multilevel metaheuristics, with program to either combinatorial and non-stop optimization.
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Extra resources for Adaptive and Multilevel Metaheuristics
Annals of Operations Research 92, 363–380 (1999) 44. : Reinforcement learning: a survey. Journal of Artiﬁcial Intelligence Research 4, 237–285 (1996) 45. : Channel assignment in cellular communication using a Great Deluge hyper-heuristic. In: Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Conference on Networks (ICON 2004), Singapore, November 16-19 (2004) 46. : Channel assignment optimisation using a hyperheuristic. In: Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE Conference on Cybernetics and Intelligent Systems (CIS 2004), Singapore, December 1-3 (2004) 47.
Many successful applications have been reported, particularly in the sub-ﬁeld of Evolution Strategies for problems in the continuous domain. In this chapter we examine the motivation and features necessary for successful self-adaptive learning to occur. Since a number of works have dealt with the continuous domain, this chapter focusses particularly on its aspects that arise when it is applied to combinatorial problems. We describe how self-adaptation may be use to control not only the parameters deﬁning crossover and mutation, but also how it may be used to control the very deﬁnition of local search operators used within hybrid evolutionary algorithms (so-called memetic algorithms).
Xn , σ . Mutations are then realised by replacing x1 , . . , xn , σ by x1 , . . , xn , σ . E. Smith distribution with mean 0 and standard deviation τ . Since N (0, τ ) = τ · N (0, 1), the full mutation mechanism is: σ = σ · eτ ·N (0,1), (1) xi = xi + σ · Ni (0, 1). (2) In these formulas N (0, 1) denotes a draw from the standard normal distribution, and since step-sizes very close to zero will have on average a negligible eﬀect, a boundary rule is then applied to maintain σ at or above a small threshold value.